About the Authors

Brendan J. Guercio

Roles Formal analysis, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Sui Zhang

Roles Formal analysis, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Dana-Farber/Partners CancerCare, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Donna Niedzwiecki

Roles Formal analysis, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Alliance Statistics and Data Center, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Yanping Li

Roles Formal analysis, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Ana Babic

Roles Formal analysis, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Dana-Farber/Partners CancerCare, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Vicente Morales-Oyarvide

Roles Formal analysis, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Dana-Farber/Partners CancerCare, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Leonard B. Saltz

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States of America

Robert J. Mayer

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Dana-Farber/Partners CancerCare, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Rex B. Mowat

Roles Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Toledo Community Hospital Oncology Program, Toledo, Ohio, United States of America

Renaud Whittom

Roles Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, Montreal, Canada

Alexander Hantel

Roles Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Edward-Elmhurst Healthcare, Naperville, Illinois, United States of America

Al Benson

Roles Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Daniel Atienza

Roles Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Virginia Oncology Associates, Norfolk, Virginia, United States of America

Michael Messino

Roles Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Southeast Clinical Oncology Research (SCOR) Consortium, Mission Hospitals, Incorporated, Asheville, North Carolina, United States of America

Hedy Kindler

Roles Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Alan Venook

Roles Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation University of California at San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Shuji Ogino

Roles Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Dana-Farber/Partners CancerCare, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Division of Molecular Pathological Epidemiology (MPE), Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Emilie S. Zoltick

Roles Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Section of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Meir Stampfer

Roles Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Kimmie Ng

Roles Investigation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Dana-Farber/Partners CancerCare, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Kana Wu

Roles Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Walter C. Willett

Roles Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Edward L. Giovannucci

Roles Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Jeffrey A. Meyerhardt

Contributed equally to this work with: Jeffrey A. Meyerhardt, Charles S. Fuchs

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Supervision, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Dana-Farber/Partners CancerCare, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Charles S. Fuchs

Contributed equally to this work with: Jeffrey A. Meyerhardt, Charles S. Fuchs

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Supervision, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

charles.fuchs@yale.edu

Affiliation Yale Cancer Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Competing Interests

I have read the journal's policy and the authors of this manuscript have the following competing interests: Dr. Ana Babic owns stock in Biogen. Dr. Emilie Zoltick owns stock in Baxter International, Bristol Myers Squibb, Cardinal Health, CVS Health, Pfizer, Shire and Zimmer Biomet. Dr. Leonard Saltz has a consulting or advisory role with Lilly and Abbvie, and has an immediate family member with a consulting or advisory role with McNeil PPC. Dr. Leonard Saltz also receives research funding from Taiho Pharmaceutical. Dr. Robert Mayer has a consulting or advisory role with CASI Pharmaceuticals and has received honoraria from Taiho Pharmaceutical. Dr. Renaud Whittom has a consulting or advisory role with Boehringer Ingelheim, Astra-Zeneca, Pfizer, and Bristol-Myers Squibb, has received honoraria from Astra-Zeneca and Astellas, receives research funding from Astellas, Genentech-Roche, and has received travel, accommodations, or other expenses from Seattle Genetics and Celgene. Dr. Alexander Hantel has received travel, accommodations or other expenses from Genentech. Dr. Al Benson has a consulting or advisory role with Genentech/Roche, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Merck Serono, Celgene, Vicus Therapeutics, Pharmacyclics, Precision Therapeutics, Taiho Pharmaceutical, Bayer, Alchemia, Infinity Pharmaceuticals, Boehringer Ingelheim, Astellas Pharma, EMD Serono, IntegraGen, Guardant Health, Opsona Therapeutics, Lexicon, Novartis, Boston Biomedical, Helsinn, Guerbet, Lilly, Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Advanced Accelerator Applications, Bayer/Onyx, TRM Oncology, DAVA Pharmaceuticals, Sanofi, and Lilly/ImClone. Dr. Al Benson has received research funding from Gilead Sciences, Amgen, Astellas Pharma, advanced accelerator applications, Bayer/Onyx, Novartis, Alchemia, AVEO, Infinity Pharmaceuticals, Genentech/Roche, Merck Sharp & Dohme, and Taiho Pharmaceutical. Dr. Al Benson has received travel, accommodations, or other expenses from Genentech/Roche, Lilly/ImClone, Bayer, Sanofi, Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, AVEO, Gilead Sciences, Astellas Pharma, Boehringer Ingelheim, DAVAOncology, TRM Oncology, Guardant Health, Helsinn, Guerbet, and Boston Biomedical. Dr. Daniel Atienza has been employed by McKesson US Oncology. Dr. Hedy Lee Kindler has had a consulting or advisory role with Aduro Biotech, MedImmune, Bayer, Genentech/Roche, Verastem, Celgene, GlaxoSmithKline, Plexxikon, AstraZeneca, and Merck, has received research funding from Aduro Biotech, AB Science, Astellas Pharma, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Celgene, GlaxoSmithKline, Incyte, Merck, MedImmune, Verastem, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Lilly, and has given expert testimony for Aduro Biotech. Dr. Alan Venook has had a consulting or advisory role with Gilead Sciences, has received research funding from Genentech/Roche, has received honoraria from Gilead Sciences, has received travel, accommodations, or other expenses from Genentech, and has received royalties from UpToDate for authoring and maintaining two chapters. Dr. Charles Fuchs has had a consulting or advisory role with Lilly, Sanofi, Bayer, Merck, Entrinsic Health, Five Prime Therapeutics, Agios, Gilead Sciences, Dicerna, Merrimack, Taiho Pharmaceutical, KEW Group, and Genentech/Roche. The remaining authors have declared that they have no competing interests to disclose. This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.