About the Authors

William S. Redfern

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Supervision, Validation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

will.redfern@astrazeneca.com

Affiliation Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca R&D, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Karen Tse

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca R&D, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Claire Grant

Roles Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca R&D, Alderley Park, Cheshire, United Kingdom

Amy Keerie

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Current address: Sheffield Institute of Translational Neuroscience (SITraN), University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

Affiliation Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca R&D, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

David J. Simpson

Roles Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca R&D, Alderley Park, Cheshire, United Kingdom

John C. Pedersen

Roles Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca R&D, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Victoria Rimmer

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Current address: Medical Device Biology Group, Faculty of Biology, Medicine & Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Affiliation Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca R&D, Alderley Park, Cheshire, United Kingdom

Lauren Leslie

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca R&D, Alderley Park, Cheshire, United Kingdom

Stephanie K. Klein

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca R&D, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Natasha A. Karp

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Validation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Quantitative Biology, IMED, AstraZeneca, Darwin Building (Unit 310), Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Rowland Sillito

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Software, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Actual Analytics Ltd, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Agis Chartsias

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Software, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Actual Analytics Ltd, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Tim Lukins

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Software, Validation, Visualization, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Actual Analytics Ltd, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

James Heward

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Software, Supervision, Visualization, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Actual Analytics Ltd, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Catherine Vickers

Roles Conceptualization, Project administration, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation NC3Rs, London, United Kingdom

Kathryn Chapman

Roles Conceptualization, Project administration, Writing – review & editing

Current address: The Milner Therapeutics Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Affiliation NC3Rs, London, United Kingdom

J. Douglas Armstrong

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Resources, Software, Supervision, Visualization, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Actual Analytics Ltd, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Appleton Tower, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have read the journal policy and have the following conflicts: J.D.A. is a full-time employee of the University of Edinburgh (Professor of Informatics), and is Chief Scientific Officer and shareholder of Actual Analytics Ltd. who market Actual HCA™ as a commercial product. R.S. is a full-time employee and shareholder of Actual Analytics Ltd.; A.C., T.L. and J.H. are former employees and shareholders of Actual Analytics Ltd. Therefore these authors declare a financial conflict of interest. None of the remaining authors has any conflict of interest: W.S.R., K.T., C.G., A.K., D.J.S., J.C.P., V.R., L.L., S.K.K. and N.A.K. were employees of AstraZeneca at the time this work was carried out. For the AstraZeneca employees there are no products in development or marketed products to declare related to this work. C.V. and K.C. were employees of NC3Rs at the time this work was carried out. For the NC3Rs employees there are no products in development or marketed products to declare related to this work. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials, as detailed online in the guide for authors.