About the Authors

Hirofumi Yurie

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan

Ryosuke Ikeguchi

ikeguchir@me.com

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan

Tomoki Aoyama

Affiliation Department of Physical Therapy, Human Health Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan

Yukitoshi Kaizawa

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Iseikai Yawata Chuo Hospital, Kyoto, Japan

Junichi Tajino

Affiliation Department of Physical Therapy, Human Health Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan

Akira Ito

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan

Souichi Ohta

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan

Hiroki Oda

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan

Hisataka Takeuchi

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan

Shizuka Akieda

Affiliation Cyfuse Biomedical K. K., Tokyo, Japan

Manami Tsuji

Affiliation Cyfuse Biomedical K. K., Tokyo, Japan

Koichi Nakayama

Affiliation Department of Regenerative Medicine and Biomedical Engineering Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan

Shuichi Matsuda

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan

Competing Interests

There are no patents or marketed products to declare. KN is the co-founder and shareholder of Cyfuse Biomedical K.K., Tokyo, Japan (Cyfuse). SA and MT, who are employees of Cyfuse, contributed to the manufacturing of 3D conduits and Cyfuse provided the bioprinter to manufacture the conduit. The company has the industrial rights related to the bioprinting method used to construct the 3D conduit in this work. Cyfuse provided support in the form of salaries for authors SA, KN, and MT and provided research grants to RI, TA, KN and SM. These competing interests do not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization: HY RI TA YK KN SM. Data curation: HY JT SO HO HT. Formal analysis: HY JT SO HO HT. Funding acquisition: RI TA KN SM. Investigation: HY RI YK JT AI SA MT. Methodology: HY RI YK JT AI SA MT. Project administration: HY RI TA YK KN SM. Resources: RI TA KN SM. Software: RI TA KN SM. Supervision: RI TA KN SM. Validation: HY RI YK JT AI SA MT. Visualization: HY RI YK JT AI SA MT. Writing – original draft: HY RI. Writing – review & editing: HY RI TA JT AI SA KN SM.