About the Authors

Shinichiro Fujimori

fujimori.shinichiro@nies.go.jp

Affiliation Center for Social and Environmental Systems Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16–2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan

Manabu Abe

Affiliation Department of Integrated Climate Change Projection Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), 3173–25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan

Tsuguki Kinoshita

Affiliation College of Agriculture, Ibaraki University, 3-21-1 Chuo, Ami, Japan

Tomoko Hasegawa

Affiliation Center for Social and Environmental Systems Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16–2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan

Hiroaki Kawase

Affiliation Meteorological Research Institute, 1–1, Nagamine, Tsukuba, Japan

Kazuhide Kushida

Affiliation Mizuho Information & Research Institute, Inc., 2–3 Kanda-Nishikicho, Chiyoda-ku, Japan

Toshihiko Masui

Affiliation Center for Social and Environmental Systems Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16–2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan

Kazutaka Oka

Affiliation Mizuho Information & Research Institute, Inc., 2–3 Kanda-Nishikicho, Chiyoda-ku, Japan

Hideo Shiogama

Affiliation Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16–2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan

Kiyoshi Takahashi

Affiliation Center for Social and Environmental Systems Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16–2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan

Hiroaki Tatebe

Affiliation Department of Integrated Climate Change Projection Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), 3173–25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan

Minoru Yoshikawa

Affiliation Mizuho Information & Research Institute, Inc., 2–3 Kanda-Nishikicho, Chiyoda-ku, Japan

Competing Interests

Kazuhide Kushida, Kazutaka Oka and Minoru Yoshikawa are employed by Mizuho Information & Research Institute, Inc. There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare. This does not alter our adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials, as detailed online in the guide for authors.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization: SF MA HS. Formal analysis: MA HS. Funding acquisition: TM KT. Investigation: SF MA HS. Methodology: SF MA HS TK HK. Project administration: SF. Software: KK KO MY SF MA HS HT. Visualization: MA SF. Writing – original draft: SF. Writing – review & editing: SF MA HS TK TH KT.