About the Authors

Noriyuki Fuku

Contributed equally to this work with: Noriyuki Fuku, Rafael Alis

Affiliation Graduate School of Health and Sports Science, Juntendo University, Chiba, Japan

Rafael Alis

Contributed equally to this work with: Noriyuki Fuku, Rafael Alis

rafael.alis@ucv.es

Affiliations School of Medicine and Research Institute “Dr. Viña Giner”, Molecular and Mitochondrial Medicine, Catholic University of Valencia San Vicente Mártir, Valencia, Spain, Servicio de Nefrología, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain

Thomas Yvert

Affiliation School of Doctorate Studies and Research, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Hirofumi Zempo

Affiliation Graduate School of Health and Sports Science, Juntendo University, Chiba, Japan

Hisashi Naito

Affiliation Graduate School of Health and Sports Science, Juntendo University, Chiba, Japan

Yukiko Abe

Affiliation Center for Supercentenarian Study, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

Yasumichi Arai

Affiliation Center for Supercentenarian Study, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

Haruka Murakami

Affiliation Department of Health Promotion and Exercise, National Institute of Health Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan

Motohiko Miyachi

Affiliation Department of Health Promotion and Exercise, National Institute of Health Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan

Helios Pareja-Galeano

Affiliations European University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain, Research Institute of Hospital 12 de Octubre (“i+12”), Madrid, Spain

Enzo Emanuele

Affiliation 2E Science, Robbio, Pavia, Italy

Nobuyoshi Hirose

‡ NH and AL are shared senior authors on this work.

Affiliation Center for Supercentenarian Study, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

Alejandro Lucia

‡ NH and AL are shared senior authors on this work.

Affiliations European University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain, Research Institute of Hospital 12 de Octubre (“i+12”), Madrid, Spain

Competing Interests

The authors declare no conflict of interests. Enzo Emanuele, MD, PhD, is the unique shareholder (100% owner) of 2E Science, a private Italy-based research organization. 2E Science and Dr. Enzo Emanuele did not receive any funding for the research reported in the current study. No commercial interests related to findings reported in the current manuscript exist for 2E Science and Dr. Enzo Emanuele. This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization: NF RA MM HPG EE NH AL. Formal analysis: NF RA TY Y. Abe Y. Arai MM HPG NH AL. Funding acquisition: NF MM NH AL. Investigation: NF TY HZ HN Y. Abe Y. Arai HM MM NH. Methodology: NF RA TY EE NH AL. Project administration: NF MM NH AL. Resources: NF MM EE NH AL. Supervision: NF MM NH AL. Validation: NF NH AL. Visualization: NF MM NH AL. Writing – original draft: NF RA MM HPG EE NH AL. Writing – review & editing: NF RA TY HZ MM HPG EE NH AL.