About the Authors

Kenneth Turinawe

Affiliation ICAP at Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health, Kigali, Rwanda

Greet Vandebriel

gv2124@cumc.columbia.edu

Affiliation ICAP at Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health, Kigali, Rwanda

David W. Lowrance

Affiliation Division of Global HIV and TB, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kigali, Rwanda

Francois Uwinkindi

Affiliation Ministry of Health, Rwanda Biomedical Center/Institute of HIV Disease Prevention and Care, Kigali, Rwanda

Philippe Mutwa

Affiliation Division of Global HIV and TB, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kigali, Rwanda

Kimberly R. Boer

Affiliation Division of Global HIV and TB, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kigali, Rwanda

Grace Mutembayire

Affiliation Ministry of Health, Rwanda Biomedical Center/Institute of HIV Disease Prevention and Care, Kigali, Rwanda

David Tugizimana

Affiliation Ministry of Health, Rwanda Biomedical Center/Institute of HIV Disease Prevention and Care, Kigali, Rwanda

Sabin Nsanzimana

Affiliation Ministry of Health, Rwanda Biomedical Center/Institute of HIV Disease Prevention and Care, Kigali, Rwanda

Eric Pevzner

Affiliation Global TB Branch, Division of Global HIV and TB, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Andrea A. Howard

Affiliation ICAP at Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York, United States of America

Michel Gasana

Affiliation Ministry of Health, Rwanda Biomedical Center/Institute of HIV Disease Prevention and Care, Kigali, Rwanda

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KT GV DL FU PM GM SN EP AH MG. Performed the experiments: KT GV FU GM. Analyzed the data: KT GV DL FU PM KB GM DT SN EP AH MG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: KT GV DL FU PM KB GM DT SN EP AH MG. Wrote the paper: KT GV DL FU PM KB GM DT SN EP AH MG.