About the Authors

Nobuhiro Hara

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Musashino Red Cross Hospital, Musashino, Tokyo, Japan

Ko Matsudaira

kohart801@gmail.com

Affiliation Department of Medical Research and Management for Musculoskeletal Pain, 22nd Century Medical & Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Kazuhiro Masuda

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokyo Metropolitan Tama Medical Center, Fuchu, Tokyo, Japan

Juichi Tohnosu

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kanto Rosai Hospital, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan

Katsushi Takeshita

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan

Atsuki Kobayashi

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokyo Metropolitan Bokutoh Hospital, Sumida-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Motoaki Murakami

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Toranomon Hospital, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Naohiro Kawamura

Affiliation Department of Spine and Orthopaedic Surgery, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Kiyohumi Yamakawa

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Sei Terayama

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sangubashi Spine Surgery Hospital, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Satoshi Ogihara

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sagamihara National Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan

Hiroo Shiono

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Toranomon Hospital, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Jiro Morii

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sanraku Hospital, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Keiji Hayakawa

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

So Kato

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Kozo Nakamura

Affiliation National Rehabilitation Center for Persons with Disabilities, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan

Hiroyuki Oka

Affiliation Department of Medical Research and Management for Musculoskeletal Pain, 22nd Century Medical & Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Takayuki Sawada

Affiliation Clinical Study Support, Inc., Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

Kyoko Inuzuka

Affiliation Clinical Study Support, Inc., Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

Norimasa Kikuchi

Affiliation Clinical Study Support, Inc., Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

Competing Interests

The authors have read the journal’s policy and the authors of this manuscript have the following competing interests: HO has received grants to his institution from Pfizer, Inc. N. Kikuchi is a board member of Clinical Study Support, Inc. TS and KI are employed by Clinical Study Support, Inc. This does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials. NH, K. Matsudaira, K. Masuda, JT, KT, AK, MM, N. Kawamura, KY, ST, SO, HS, JM, KH, SK, and KN have no conflict of interests to declare. There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: NH K. Matsudaira. Performed the experiments: NH K. Matsudaira K. Masuda JT KT AK MM N. Kawamura KY ST SO HS JM KH SK KN HO. Analyzed the data: NH TS. Wrote the paper: KI N. Kikuchi K. Matsudaira.