About the Authors

Miguel Pinilla-Vera

Contributed equally to this work with: Miguel Pinilla-Vera, Zeyu Xiong

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Zeyu Xiong

Contributed equally to this work with: Miguel Pinilla-Vera, Zeyu Xiong

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Yutong Zhao

Affiliations Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Jing Zhao

Affiliations Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Michael P. Donahoe

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Suchitra Barge

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

William T. Horne

Affiliation Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Jay K. Kolls

Affiliation Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Bryan J. McVerry

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Anastasiya Birukova

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Robert M. Tighe

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

W. Michael Foster

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

John Hollingsworth

Affiliations Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America

Anuradha Ray

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Rama Mallampalli

Affiliation The Medical Specialty Service Line, Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Prabir Ray

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Janet S. Lee

leejs3@upmc.edu

Affiliations Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: PR JSL. Performed the experiments: MPV ZX YZ JZ MPD SB WTH JKK BJM AB RMT WMF JH RM AR PR JSL. Analyzed the data: MPV ZX YZ JZ MPD SB WTH JKK BJM AB RMT WMF JH RM AR PR JSL. Wrote the paper: MPV ZX RMT JSL.