About the Authors

Matthew J. Page

matthew.page@monash.edu

Affiliations School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Julian P. T. Higgins

Affiliation School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Gemma Clayton

Affiliation School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Jonathan A. C. Sterne

Affiliation School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Asbjørn Hróbjartsson

Affiliation Center for Evidence-Based Medicine, University of Southern Denmark & Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

Jelena Savović

Affiliations School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, The National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care West (NIHR CLAHRC West) at University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

JACS, AB and JS are authors of a study included in this review, but were not involved in the eligibility assessment or data extraction of these studies. This does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials. All other authors declare no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MJP JPTH JS. Performed the experiments: MJP GC. Analyzed the data: MJP JPTH. Wrote the paper: MJP JPTH GC JACS AH JS.