About the Authors

Roy D. Dar

roydar@illinois.edu

Affiliations Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America, Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America, Center for Biophysics and Quantitative Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America

Sydney M. Shaffer

Affiliation Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States of America

Abhyudai Singh

Affiliation Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, United States of America

Brandon S. Razooky

Affiliation Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

Michael L. Simpson

Affiliations Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, United States of America, Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States of America, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States of America

Arjun Raj

Affiliation Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States of America

Leor S. Weinberger

Affiliations Gladstone Institute (Virology and Immunology), San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RDD SMS AS BSR MLS AR LSW. Performed the experiments: RDD SMS AS BSR MLS AR LSW. Analyzed the data: RDD SMS AS BSR MLS AR LSW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RDD SMS AS BSR MLS AR LSW. Wrote the paper: RDD SMS AS BSR MLS AR LSW.