About the Authors

Tongli Wang


Affiliation Centre for Forest Conservation Genetics, Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences, University of British Columbia, 3041–2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada

Andreas Hamann

Affiliation Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 733 General Services Building, Edmonton, Alberta, T5H 4R1, Canada

Dave Spittlehouse

Affiliation Competitiveness and Innovation Branch, Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resources Operations of British Columbia, Victoria, BC, V8W 9C2, Canada

Carlos Carroll

Affiliation Klamath Center for Conservation Research, 136 SW Washington Avenue, Suite 202, Corvallis, OR, 97333, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TW AH DS. Performed the experiments: TW AH DS CC. Analyzed the data: TW AH DS CC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TW AH DS CC. Wrote the paper: TW AH DS CC.