About the Authors

Ngai-Hang Z. Leung

Current address: Department of Management Sciences, College of Business, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

Affiliation Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Ana Chen

Affiliation Analytics Operations Engineering, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Prashant Yadav

Affiliation William Davidson Institute, Ross School of Business and School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Jérémie Gallien


Affiliation London Business School, Regent’s Park, London, NW1 4SA, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: NHL PY JG. Performed the experiments: NHL AC. Analyzed the data: NHL JG. Wrote the paper: NHL AC PY JG. Developed simulation code: NHL. Coordinated stock card data transcription: AC. Designed the study: JG. Led the research: JG. Edited the final report: JG.