About the Authors

Geraldine Marie Foster

Affiliation Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Michael Coleman

Affiliation Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Edward Thomsen

Affiliation Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Hilary Ranson

hilary.ranson@lstmed.ac.uk

Affiliation Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Elise Yangalbé-Kalnone

Affiliation Programme National de Lutte contre le Paludisme, N’Djamena, Chad

Tchomfienet Moundai

Affiliation Programme National de Lutte contre le Paludisme, N’Djamena, Chad

Israel Demba Kodindo

Affiliation Programme National de Lutte contre le Paludisme, N’Djamena, Chad

Amen Nakebang

Affiliation Programme National de Lutte contre le Paludisme, N’Djamena, Chad

Adoum Mahamat

Affiliation Programme National de Lutte contre l’Onchocercose, Ministère de la Santé Publique, N’Djamena, Chad

Mallaye Peka

Affiliation Programme National de Lutte contre la Trypanosomiase Humaine Africaine, Ministère de la Santé Publique, N’Djamena, Chad

Clement Kerah-Hinzoumbé

Affiliation Programme National de Lutte contre le Paludisme, N’Djamena, Chad

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: HR CKH. Performed the experiments: EYK AN AM TM IDK MP. Analyzed the data: GF CKH AN HR ET. Wrote the paper: GF CKH HR MC ET.