About the Authors

Kavindhran Velen

Affiliations The Aurum Institute, Johannesburg, South Africa, The School of Public Health, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

James J. Lewis

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Salome Charalambous

Affiliations The Aurum Institute, Johannesburg, South Africa, The School of Public Health, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Liesl Page-Shipp

Affiliation The Aurum Institute, Johannesburg, South Africa

Flora Popane

Affiliation The Aurum Institute, Johannesburg, South Africa

Gavin J. Churchyard

Affiliations The Aurum Institute, Johannesburg, South Africa, The School of Public Health, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, Advancing Care and Treatment for TB and HIV, MRC Collaborating Centre of Excellence, Johannesburg, South Africa

Christopher J. Hoffmann

choffmann@jhmi.edu

Affiliations The Aurum Institute, Johannesburg, South Africa, The School of Public Health, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SC LP-S GJC CJH. Performed the experiments: KV LP-S FP. Analyzed the data: KV JJL CJH. Wrote the paper: KV JJL SC LP-S FP GJC CJH.