About the Authors

Oren K. Fix


Affiliation Swedish Medical Center, Organ Transplant Program, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Iris Liou

Affiliation University of Washington, Department of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Constantine J. Karvellas

Affiliation University of Alberta, Department of Medicine, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Daniel R. Ganger

Affiliation Northwestern University, Department of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Kimberly A. Forde

Affiliation University of Pennsylvania, Department of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Ram M. Subramanian

Affiliation Emory University, Department of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Alice Boylan

Affiliation Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Medicine, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America

James Hanje

Affiliation The Ohio State University, Department of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America

R. Todd Stravitz

Affiliation Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America

William M. Lee

Affiliation University of Texas Southwestern, Department of Medicine, Dallas, Texas, United States of America

Acute Liver Failure Study Group

Membership of the Acute Liver Failure Study Group is listed in the Acknowledgments.

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: OKF IL WML. Performed the experiments: OKF IL CJK DAG KAF RMS AB JH RTS WML. Analyzed the data: OKF IL CJK. Wrote the paper: OKF IL.