About the Authors

Takeshi Yamaguchi

yamatake@gdl.mech.tohoku.ac.jp

Affiliations Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan

Hironari Higuchi

Affiliation Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan

Hiroshi Onodera

Affiliation Photon Science Center and Department of Electronic Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bukyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Kazuo Hokkirigawa

Affiliation Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan

Kei Masani

Affiliations Rehabilitation Engineering Laboratory, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Rehabilitation Engineering Laboratory, Lyndhurst Centre, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute – University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TY KM KH. Performed the experiments: TY HH HO. Analyzed the data: TY HH KM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: HH HO. Wrote the paper: TY HK KM.