About the Authors

Shang-Ming Zhou

s.zhou@swansea.ac.uk; smzhou@ieee.org

Affiliation Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom

Fabiola Fernandez-Gutierrez

Affiliation Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom

Jonathan Kennedy

Affiliation Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom

Roxanne Cooksey

Affiliation Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom

Mark Atkinson

Affiliation Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom

Spiros Denaxas

Affiliation UCL Institute of Health Informatics and Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research, London, United Kingdom

Stefan Siebert

Affiliation Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

William G. Dixon

Affiliation Arthritis Research UK Centre for Epidemiology, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Terence W. O’Neill

Affiliation Arthritis Research UK Centre for Epidemiology, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Ernest Choy

Affiliation Arthritis Research UK CREATE Centre and Welsh Arthritis Research Network, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom

Cathie Sudlow

Affiliation Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

UK Biobank Follow-up and Outcomes Group

The complete membership of the author group (UK Biobank Follow-up and Outcomes Group) can be found in the Acknowledgments

Affiliation The UK Biobank, Stockport, United Kingdom

Sinead Brophy

Affiliation Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SMZ FF JK SB. Performed the experiments: FF JK SMZ. Analyzed the data: SB SMZ FF JK SD SS WGD TWO EC CS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: FF JK SMZ SB. Wrote the paper: SB SMZ FF JK SD SS WGD TWO EC CS. Conceived this study: SB, SMZ. Conceived and developed algorithms: SMZ FF JK. Coordinated data acquisition and management: RC MA. Critically reviewed and revised the manuscript: SB SMZ FF JK RC MA SD SS WGD TWO EC CS. Providing advances and consultations related to this study: UK Biobank.