About the Authors

Cavin K. Ward-Caviness

Affiliations Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, United States of America, Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Center Munich, Neuherberg, Germany 85764

Lucas M. Neas

Affiliation National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514, United States of America

Colette Blach

Affiliation Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, United States of America

Carol S. Haynes

Affiliation Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, United States of America

Karen LaRocque-Abramson

Affiliation Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, United States of America

Elizabeth Grass

Affiliation Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, United States of America

Elaine Dowdy

Affiliation Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, United States of America

Robert B. Devlin

Affiliation National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514, United States of America

David Diaz-Sanchez

Affiliation National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514, United States of America

Wayne E. Cascio

Affiliation National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514, United States of America

Marie Lynn Miranda

Affiliation National Center for Geospatial Medicine, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005, United States of America

Simon G. Gregory

Affiliation Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, United States of America

Svati H. Shah

Affiliations Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, United States of America, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, United States of America

William E. Kraus

Affiliations Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, United States of America, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, United States of America

Elizabeth R. Hauser

elizabeth.hauser@gmail.com

Affiliations Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, United States of America, Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, United States of America, Cooperative Studies Program Epidemiology Center-Durham, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27701, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CWC LN RBD DDS WEC SGG SHS WEK ERH. Performed the experiments: CWC CSH KL EG. Analyzed the data: CWC CB MLM. Wrote the paper: CWC LN WEC MLM WEK ERH. Managed patient enrollment and consent: ED. Designed database structure used for analysis: CB.