About the Authors

Ashok Sharma

Affiliation Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA, United States of America

Xiang Liu

Affiliation Pediatric Epidemiology Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, United States of America

David Hadley

Affiliations Pediatric Epidemiology Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, United States of America, Division of Population Health Sciences and Education, St George's University of London, London, United Kingdom

William Hagopian

Affiliation Pacific Northwest Diabetes Research Institute, Seattle, WA, United States of America

Edwin Liu

Affiliation Digestive Health Institute, Children’s Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States of America

Wei-Min Chen

Affiliation Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States of America

Suna Onengut-Gumuscu

Affiliation Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States of America

Ville Simell

Affiliation Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

Marian Rewers

Affiliation Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States of America

Anette-G. Ziegler

Affiliation Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München, and Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, and Forschergruppe Diabetes e.V., Munich-Neuherberg, Germany

Åke Lernmark

Affiliation Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University/CRC, Malmö, Sweden

Olli Simell

Affiliation Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

Jorma Toppari

Affiliation Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

Jeffrey P. Krischer

Affiliation Pediatric Epidemiology Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, United States of America

Beena Akolkar

Affiliation National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States of America

Stephen S. Rich

Affiliation Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States of America

Daniel Agardh

Affiliation Diabetes and Celiac Disease Unit, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden

Jin-Xiong She

jshe@gru.edu

Affiliation Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA, United States of America

TEDDY Study Group

Membership of the TEDDY Study Group is provided in the Acknowledgments.

Competing Interests

Dr. David Hadley is an employee of TransMed System Inc. but participated in this study as an employee of Pediatric Epidemiology Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA. TransMed Systems, Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA, played no role in this study, and the specific roles of Dr. Hadley is articulated in the Author Contributions section. There are no patents, products in development, or marked products to declare. This does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data or materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AS XL DH DA WH SSR JXS. Performed the experiments: WMC SOG SSR. Analyzed the data: AS XL DH DA WH JXS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: VS MR AGZ ÅL OS JT JPK BA SSR. Wrote the paper: AS XL DH DA EL WH SSR JXS.