About the Authors

Asaff Harel

Contributed equally to this work with: Asaff Harel, Antonia Ceccarelli

Affiliation Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York, United States of America

Antonia Ceccarelli

Contributed equally to this work with: Asaff Harel, Antonia Ceccarelli

Affiliation Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York, United States of America

Colleen Farrell

Affiliations Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York, United States of America, Corinne Goldsmith Dickinson Center for MS, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States of America

Michelle Fabian

Affiliations Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York, United States of America, Corinne Goldsmith Dickinson Center for MS, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States of America

Jonathan Howard

Affiliation Department of Neurology, New York University, Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America

Claire Riley

Affiliation Department of Neurology, The Neurological Institute of New York, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Aaron Miller

Affiliations Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York, United States of America, Corinne Goldsmith Dickinson Center for MS, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States of America

Fred Lublin

Affiliations Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York, United States of America, Corinne Goldsmith Dickinson Center for MS, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States of America

Matilde Inglese

matilde.inglese@mssm.edu

Affiliations Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Radiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States of America, Corinne Goldsmith Dickinson Center for MS, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States of America

Competing Interests

AH, AC, RG, CF, MF, and JH report no disclosures. CR has served as a consultant and/or participant in advisory board meetings for Genzye/Sanofi, Biogen Idec, Novartis, and Teva. She has received research support from NMSS. AM has served as a consultant and/or participant in advisory board meetings for Genzyme/sanofi-aventis, Biogen Idec, Glaxo Smith Kline, EMD Serono (Merck Serono), Novartis, ONO, Acorda, Nuron Biotech,Teva, Questcor and Accordant Health Services. He has received research support from Acorda, Novartis, Genentech, Genzyme/sanofi-aventis, Biogen Idec, Roche, and Questcor. He has served as Editor of Continuum, a continuing medical education publication of the AAN and currently serves as Editor of Continuum Audio. He is a member of the editorial board of Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. He occasionally performs expert reviews of medical records or serves as an expert witness in medical malpractice cases. FL’s sources of funding for research include: Acorda Therapeutics, Inc.; Biogen Idec; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp; Teva Neuroscience, Inc.; Genzyme; Sanofi; Celgene; NIH; NMSS; Consulting Agreements/Advisory Boards/DSMB: Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals; Biogen Idec; EMD Serono, Inc.; Novartis; Teva Neuroscience; Actelion; Sanofi-Aventis; Acorda; Questcor; Roche, Genentech; Celgene; Johnson & Johnson; Revalesio; Coronado Bioscience, Genzyme, MedImmune; Bristol-Myers Squibb, Xenoport, Receptos; Forward Pharma; Co-Chief Editor: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Diseases; Stock Ownership: Cognition Pharmaceuticals, Inc. MI has received research grants from NIH, NMSS, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp., and she is a consultant for Vaccinex Inc. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: FL MI. Performed the experiments: CF MF AM MI. Analyzed the data: AH AC MI. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AH AC CF MF JH CR AM FL MI. Wrote the paper: AH AC MI.