About the Authors

Lauren C. Balmert

lab165@pitt.edu

Affiliation Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, United States of America

Jeanine M. Buchanich

Affiliation Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, United States of America

Janice L. Pringle

Affiliation School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, 5607 Baum Boulevard, Room 531, Pittsburgh, PA 15206, United States of America

Karl E. Williams

Affiliation Office of the Medical Examiner of Allegheny County, 1520 Penn Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15222, United States of America

Donald S. Burke

Affiliation Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, United States of America

Gary M. Marsh

Affiliation Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: LB JB DB. Analyzed the data: LB JB JP KW DB GM. Wrote the paper: LB JB JP KW DB GM. Acquisition of Data: LB JB GM. Study Supervision: JB DB. Critical Revisions of Manuscript: LB JB JP KW DB GM.