About the Authors

W. P. Aspinall

Affiliations Aspinall & Associates, Tisbury, England, Bristol University, Bristol, England

R. M. Cooke


Affiliations Resources for the Future, Washington D. C., United States of America, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

A. H. Havelaar

Affiliations National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands

S. Hoffmann

Affiliation U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Washington D. C., United States of America

T. Hald

Affiliation Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark

Competing Interests

Co-author Willy Aspinall is the owner of Aspinall & Associates. There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: WPA RMC AH TH SH. Performed the experiments: WPA RMC AH TH SH. Analyzed the data: WPA RMC TH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: WPA RMC AH TH SH. Wrote the paper: WPA RMC AH TH SH.