About the Authors

Michelle Sholzberg

sholzbergm@smh.ca

Affiliations Department of Medicine, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Tara Gomes

Contributed equally to this work with: Tara Gomes, David N. Juurlink, Zhan Yao, Muhammad M. Mamdani, Andreas Laupacis

Affiliations Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Institute for Health Policy Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

David N. Juurlink

Contributed equally to this work with: Tara Gomes, David N. Juurlink, Zhan Yao, Muhammad M. Mamdani, Andreas Laupacis

Affiliations Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Institute for Health Policy Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Zhan Yao

Contributed equally to this work with: Tara Gomes, David N. Juurlink, Zhan Yao, Muhammad M. Mamdani, Andreas Laupacis

Affiliation Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Muhammad M. Mamdani

Contributed equally to this work with: Tara Gomes, David N. Juurlink, Zhan Yao, Muhammad M. Mamdani, Andreas Laupacis

Affiliations Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Institute for Health Policy Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Andreas Laupacis

Contributed equally to this work with: Tara Gomes, David N. Juurlink, Zhan Yao, Muhammad M. Mamdani, Andreas Laupacis

Affiliations Department of Medicine, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Institute for Health Policy Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MS TG DJ MM AL. Performed the experiments: MS TG ZY. Analyzed the data: MS TG DJ ZY MM AL. Wrote the paper: MS TG DJ ZY MM AL.