About the Authors

Matt R. K. Zeale

Affiliation School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom

Emily Bennitt

Affiliation School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom

Stuart E. Newson

Affiliation British Trust for Ornithology, The Nunnery, Thetford, Norfolk, IP24 2PU, United Kingdom

Charlotte Packman

Affiliation School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom

William J. Browne

Affiliation Graduate School of Education, and Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol, 2 Priory Road, Bristol, BS8 1TX, United Kingdom

Stephen Harris

Affiliation School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom

Gareth Jones

gareth.jones@bristol.ac.uk

Affiliation School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom

Emma Stone

Affiliation School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MRKZ SH GJ ES. Performed the experiments: MRKZ EB CP ES. Analyzed the data: MRKZ EB CP ES. Wrote the paper: MRKZ SH GJ. Conducted the population modelling: SEN. Conducted the multilevel modelling: WJB. Supervised the study: SH GJ.