About the Authors

Anthony F. J. van Raan


Affiliation Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS), Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands

Gerwin van der Meulen

Affiliation Decisio Economic Consulting, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Willem Goedhart

Affiliation Decisio Economic Consulting, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Competing Interests

During the course of the study GvdM and WG received support in the form of salaries from Decisio. The specific roles of these authors are articulated in the 'author contributions' section. The role of Decisio as an economic research and consulting firm that specializes in economic issues was participating in this study without any commercial interest. There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials, as detailed online in the guide for authors.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AFJvR GvdM WG. Performed the experiments: AFJvR. Analyzed the data: AFJvR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AFJvR GvdM WG. Wrote the paper: AFJvR GvdM WG.