About the Authors

Michele Pezzoni

Affiliations GREDEG, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France, CRIOS, Bocconi University, Milan, Italy, BRICK, Collegio Carlo Alberto, Torino, Italy

Jacques Mairesse

Affiliations CREST-ENSAE, Paris, France; UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, Netherlands, NBER, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Paula Stephan


Affiliations NBER, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Andrew Young School, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Julia Lane

Affiliations New York University, New York, New York, United States of America, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MP JM PS. Analyzed the data: MP JM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MP JL. Wrote the paper: JL PS.