About the Authors

Geraldine Mulley

Affiliation School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6AJ, United Kingdom

Michael L. Beeton

Affiliation Cardiff School of Health Sciences, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Llandaff Campus, Western Avenue, Cardiff, CF5 2YB, United Kingdom

Paul Wilkinson

Affiliation Life Sciences Building, Bristol University, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom

Isabella Vlisidou

Affiliation Life Sciences Building, Bristol University, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom

Nina Ockendon-Powell

Affiliation Primary Care Unit, Microbiology Department, Public Health England, Gloucester Royal Hospital, Great Western Road, Gloucester, GL1 3NN, United Kingdom

Alexia Hapeshi

Affiliation Division of Biomedical Sciences, Warwick Medical School, Medical School Building, The University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom

Nick J. Tobias

Affiliation Buchmann Center for Life Sciences (BMLS), Fachbereich Biowissenschaften, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, 60438, Frankfurt, Germany

Friederike I. Nollmann

Affiliation Buchmann Center for Life Sciences (BMLS), Fachbereich Biowissenschaften, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, 60438, Frankfurt, Germany

Helge B. Bode

Affiliation Buchmann Center for Life Sciences (BMLS), Fachbereich Biowissenschaften, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, 60438, Frankfurt, Germany

Jean van den Elsen

Affiliation Department of Biology & Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY, United Kingdom

Richard H. ffrench-Constant

Affiliation Biosciences, Cornwall Campus, University of Exeter, Penryn, TR10 9EZ, United Kingdom

Nicholas R. Waterfield

N.R.Waterfield@warwick.ac.uk

Affiliation Division of Biomedical Sciences, Warwick Medical School, Medical School Building, The University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: NW RHFC GM. Performed the experiments: GM MLB PW IV AH HBB FIN JVDE. Analyzed the data: GM PW NOP NT NW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: PW NOP. Wrote the paper: GM AH HBB RHFC NW.