About the Authors

Katsunori Yoshikawa

Affiliations Department of Bioinformatic Engineering, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, 1–5 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565–0871, Japan, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 3–5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102–0075, Japan

Shimpei Aikawa

Affiliations Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 3–5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102–0075, Japan, Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1–1 Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657–8501, Japan

Yuta Kojima

Affiliations Department of Bioinformatic Engineering, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, 1–5 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565–0871, Japan, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 3–5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102–0075, Japan

Yoshihiro Toya

Affiliation Department of Bioinformatic Engineering, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, 1–5 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565–0871, Japan

Chikara Furusawa

Affiliations Department of Bioinformatic Engineering, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, 1–5 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565–0871, Japan, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 3–5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102–0075, Japan, Quantitative Biology Center, RIKEN, 6-2-3 Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565–0874, Japan

Akihiko Kondo

Affiliations Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 3–5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102–0075, Japan, Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1–1 Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657–8501, Japan

Hiroshi Shimizu

shimizu@ist.osaka-u.ac.jp

Affiliations Department of Bioinformatic Engineering, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, 1–5 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565–0871, Japan, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 3–5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102–0075, Japan

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KY SA YK YT CF AK HS. Performed the experiments: KY SA YK. Analyzed the data: KY SA YK YT. Wrote the paper: KY SA AK HS.