About the Authors

Sara De Fanti

Contributed equally to this work with: Sara De Fanti, Chiara Barbieri

Affiliation Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

Chiara Barbieri

Contributed equally to this work with: Sara De Fanti, Chiara Barbieri

barbieri.chiara@gmail.com (CB); donata.luiselli@unibo.it (DL)

Current Address: Department of Linguistic and Cultural Evolution, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany

Affiliation Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

Stefania Sarno

Affiliation Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

Federica Sevini

Affiliations Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, C.I.G. Interdepartmental Centre L. Galvani for Integrated Studies on Bioinformatics, Biophysics and Biocomplexity, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

Dario Vianello

Affiliations Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, C.I.G. Interdepartmental Centre L. Galvani for Integrated Studies on Bioinformatics, Biophysics and Biocomplexity, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

Erika Tamm

Affiliations Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology group, Tartu, Estonia, Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

Ene Metspalu

Affiliations Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology group, Tartu, Estonia, Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

Mannis van Oven

Affiliations Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology group, Tartu, Estonia, Department of Forensic Molecular Biology, Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Alexander Hübner

Affiliation Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

Marco Sazzini

Affiliation Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

Claudio Franceschi

Affiliations Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, C.I.G. Interdepartmental Centre L. Galvani for Integrated Studies on Bioinformatics, Biophysics and Biocomplexity, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, IRCCS, Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna, Ospedale Bellaria, Bologna, Italy, CNR, Institute of Organic Synthesis and Photoreactivity (ISOF), Bologna, Italy

Davide Pettener

Affiliation Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

Donata Luiselli

barbieri.chiara@gmail.com (CB); donata.luiselli@unibo.it (DL)

Affiliation Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DL SDF MS CB. Performed the experiments: SDF MvO FS ET. Analyzed the data: CB SS SDF DV AH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ET EM MvO CF DP DL. Wrote the paper: CB DL MS SDF MvO ET EM AH.