About the Authors

Peter L. Tyack


Affiliation School of Biology and Sea Mammal Research Unit, Scottish Oceans Institute, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland, United Kingdom

John Calambokidis

Affiliation Cascadia Research, 218 1/2 W 4th Ave., Olympia, Washington, United States of America

Ari Friedlaender

Affiliation Oregon State University Marine Mammal Institute, Hatfield Marine Science Center, 2030 SE Marine Science Drive, Newport, Oregon, United States of America

Jeremy Goldbogen

Affiliation Department of Biology, Stanford University, 120 Ocean View Boulevard, Pacific Grove, California, United States of America

Brandon Southall

Affiliation Southall Environmental Associates Inc., Aptos, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors of this manuscript have the following competing interests: As with the authors of Schorr et al. (2014) all of the authors of this commentary have support from grants or contracts with the US Navy including the research program studying effects of sonar on marine mammals in waters off Southern California. PLT, JC, and BS were Co-PIs on the DeRuiter et al (2013) study referenced in both the Schorr et al. publication and in this commentary. BS and PLT were co-PIs on Navy-funded research projects on behavioral response at AUTEC and the Mediterranean. PLT is a member of the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) which is an advocacy organization that has sued the Navy concerning effects of sonar on marine mammals. More than 5 years ago, PLT and BS were expert witnesses for the US Department of Justice and JC was an expert witness for NRDC in cases involving effects of sonar on marine mammals. JC served on a scientific advisory panel for the Navy and BS served on an advisory board for U.S. Navy Range Monitoring efforts. BS was an adviser to the NOAA Ocean Acoustics Program (ended two years ago) and is a former NOAA employee (ended five years ago). BS and AF are fully and partially (respectively) employed by a commercial company (SEA, Inc.) that (like all other co-authors of this and the Schorr et al (2014) paper) receives grants and contracts from the US Navy. BS also conducts related research and consultancy for both private sector and environmental non-profit organizations through SEA, but SEA has no additional relevant declarations relating to patents, products in development, or marketed products.

Author Contributions

Wrote the paper: PLT JC AF JG BS.