About the Authors

Jessica E. Laine

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Paul Ray

Affiliation Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Wanda Bodnar

Affiliation Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Peter H. Cable

Affiliation Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Kim Boggess

Affiliation Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Steven Offenbacher

Affiliation Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Rebecca C. Fry

rfry@email.unc.edu

Affiliation Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RF KB SO. Performed the experiments: PC WB PR JL. Analyzed the data: JL. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: PC WB PR JL. Wrote the paper: JL RF KB.