About the Authors

Karen M. Lammers

Contributed equally to this work with: Karen M. Lammers, Marcello Chieppa, Lunhua Liu

klammers@mgh.harvard.edu

Affiliation Department of Pediatrics, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital East, Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States of America

Marcello Chieppa

Contributed equally to this work with: Karen M. Lammers, Marcello Chieppa, Lunhua Liu

Current address: Laboratory of Experimental Immunopathology, National Institute of Gastroenterology “de Bellis” 70013 Castellana Grotte, Bari, Italy

Affiliation Lymphocyte Biology Section, Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Lunhua Liu

Contributed equally to this work with: Karen M. Lammers, Marcello Chieppa, Lunhua Liu

Affiliation Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Song Liu

Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Tatsushi Omatsu

Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Mirkka Janka-Junttila

Affiliation Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Vincenzo Casolaro

Current address: Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Baronissi, Campania, Italy

Affiliation Department of Pediatrics, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital East, Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States of America

Hans-Christian Reinecker

Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Carole A. Parent

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Alessio Fasano

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Department of Pediatrics, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital East, Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States of America

Competing Interests

AF is stockholder of Alba Therapeutics. This does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KML MC VC H-CR CAP AF. Performed the experiments: KML MC LL SL TO MJ-J. Analyzed the data: KML MC LL SL TO MJ-J H-CR CAP AF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MC H-CR CAP AF. Wrote the paper: KML. Critically revised the manuscript: KML MC VC H-CR CAP AF.