About the Authors

Mark Dingemanse

mark.dingemanse@mpi.nl (MD): nick.enfield@sydney.edu.au (NJE)

Affiliation Language & Cognition Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, Netherlands

Seán G. Roberts

Affiliation Language & Cognition Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, Netherlands

Julija Baranova

Affiliation Language & Cognition Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, Netherlands

Joe Blythe

Affiliation School of Language and Linguistics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Paul Drew

Affiliation Department of Social Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom

Simeon Floyd

Affiliation Language & Cognition Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, Netherlands

Rosa S. Gisladottir

Affiliation Language & Cognition Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, Netherlands

Kobin H. Kendrick

Affiliation Language & Cognition Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, Netherlands

Stephen C. Levinson

Affiliations Language & Cognition Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, Netherlands, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands, Donders Institute, PB 9104, Nijmegen, Netherlands

Elizabeth Manrique

Affiliation Language & Cognition Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, Netherlands

Giovanni Rossi

Affiliation Language & Cognition Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, Netherlands

N. J. Enfield

mark.dingemanse@mpi.nl (MD): nick.enfield@sydney.edu.au (NJE)

Affiliations Language & Cognition Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, Netherlands, Donders Institute, PB 9104, Nijmegen, Netherlands, Department of Linguistics, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MD J. Baranova J. Blythe PD SF RSG KHK SCL EM GR NJE. Performed the experiments: MD J. Baranova J. Blythe SF RSG KHK SCL EM GR NJE. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SGR MD J. Baranova J. Blythe PD SF. Wrote the paper: MD NJE SGR SCL. Carried out field work, corpus collection, transcription, translation, and data collection: MD J. Baranova J. Blythe SF RSG KHK SCL EM GR NJE; Participated in primary data analysis and formulation of design of the coding: MD J. Baranova J. Blythe PD SF RSG KHK SCL EM GR NJE; Designed and wrote the coding scheme: MD KHK NJE; Oversaw coding reliability: MD KHK; Oversaw data collection and did data analysis: MD; Did mixed effects modeling and statistics: SGR; Coordinated the project: MD NJE.