About the Authors

Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson

Kristina.Gemzell@ki.se

Affiliation Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, SE-171 76, Sweden

Dan Apter

Affiliation Sexual Health Clinic (Family Federation of Finland), Väestöliitto, Helsinki, 00101, Finland

Brian Hauck

Affiliation Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Foothills Hospital, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4J8, Canada

Thomas Schmelter

Affiliation Bayer Pharma AG, Müllerstrasse 178, Berlin, 13353, Germany

Sarah Rybowski

Affiliation Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Whippany, New Jersey, United States of America

Kimberly Rosen

Affiliation Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Whippany, New Jersey, United States of America

Anita Nelson

Affiliation Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Harbor-UCLA, 1000 West Carson Street Torrance, California, 90405, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors of this manuscript have read the journal's policy and have the following competing interests: Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson occasionally serves on advisory boards and has been an invited speaker at scientific meetings for Bayer AG, MSD/Merck, HRA Pharma, ExcelGyn and Gideon Richter on an ad hoc basis. Her institution has received grants for conducting the Phase II and Phase III clinical trials of the 13.5 mg and 19.5 mg levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive systems. Dan Apter’s institution has received grants from Bayer Healthcare for conduct of the Phase II and Phase III trials of the 13.5 mg and 19.5 mg levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive systems. He has also taken part in advisory boards and has been an invited speaker at scientific meetings for Bayer AG, MSD/Merck, HRA Pharma, and Gideon Richter on an ad hoc basis. Brian Hauck’s institution has received grants for conduct of the Phase II and Phase III clinical trials of the 13.5 mg and 19.5 mg levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive systems. He has served on advisory boards and is currently a speaker for Merck, Bayer Healthcare and Pfizer. Thomas Schmelter and Sarah Rybowski are full-time employees of Bayer Pharma AG. Kimberly Rosen is a full-time employee of Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals. Anita Nelson has received honoraria for serving on speakers’ bureaus and advisory boards for Bayer HealthCare. Her clinic has received grant funding for conduct of this Phase III study from Bayer HealthCare. Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson confirms that she is a PLOS ONE Associate Editor and this does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE editorial policies and criteria.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KR. Performed the experiments: KGD DA BH AN. Analyzed the data: TS SR KR KGD DA BH AN. Wrote the paper: TS SR KR KGD DA BH AN.