About the Authors

Vincenzo Cardinale

Contributed equally to this work with: Vincenzo Cardinale, Rosa Puca, Guido Carpino

Affiliation Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

Rosa Puca

Contributed equally to this work with: Vincenzo Cardinale, Rosa Puca, Guido Carpino

Affiliation Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

Guido Carpino

Contributed equally to this work with: Vincenzo Cardinale, Rosa Puca, Guido Carpino

Affiliation Department of Health Sciences, University of Rome “Foro Italico”, Rome, Italy

Gaia Scafetta

Affiliation Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

Anastasia Renzi

Affiliation Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedics Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

Michele De Canio

Affiliation Departments of Science and Chemical Technologies, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

Francesca Sicilia

Affiliation Departments of Science and Chemical Technologies, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

Lorenzo Nevi

Affiliation Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

Domenico Casa

Affiliation Italian Federation of Juvenile Diabetes (FDG), Rome, Italy

Rocco Panetta

Affiliation Italian Federation of Juvenile Diabetes (FDG), Rome, Italy

Pasquale Bartolomeo Berloco

Affiliation Department of General Surgery and Organ Transplantation, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

Lola M. Reid

Affiliation Departments of Cell and Molecular Physiology, Program in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Giorgio Federici

Affiliation Departments of Science and Chemical Technologies, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

Eugenio Gaudio

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedics Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

Marella Maroder

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

Domenico Alvaro

domenico.alvaro@uniroma1.it

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliations Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, Eleonora Lorillard Spencer-Cenci Foundation, Rome, Italy

Competing Interests

VC GC LR EG DA are inventors of a international patent related to hBTSCs. FDG hold a patent related to the recombinant Pdx1 utilized in this study. 1) National patent. Italy. Patent Application No.: N. 0001360239, Filing Date 21/10/2005 Rome, Title. PROTEINE OMEOTICHE PER LA CURA DEL DIABETE MELLITO DI TIPO 1 o 2 INSULINOTRATTATO; 2) International patent. U.S. Patent Application No.:61/256,846, Filing Date:10/30/2009; Title: MULTIPOTENT STEM CELLS FROM THE EXTRAHEPATIC BILIARY TREE AND METHODS OF ISOLATING SAME; 3) International patent. U.S. Patent Application No. WO2014143632 A1; Filing Date: 03/13/2014; Title: METHOD OF TREATING PANCREATIC AND LIVER CONDITIONS BY TRANSPLANTATION OF STEM CELLS INTO BILE DUCT WALLS. This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: VC R Puca GC EG MM DA. Performed the experiments: GS AR MDC FS LN DC R Panetta GF. Analyzed the data: VC R Puca R Panetta GC EG MM DA LR GF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: PB. Wrote the paper: VC Puca GC EG MM DA GF.