About the Authors

Sandra de Bie

Contributed equally to this work with: Sandra de Bie, Carmen Ferrajolo

Affiliations Department of Medical Informatics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, Medicines Evaluation Board, Utrecht, the Netherlands

Carmen Ferrajolo

Contributed equally to this work with: Sandra de Bie, Carmen Ferrajolo

c.ferrajolo@erasmusmc.nl

Affiliations Department of Medical Informatics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, Experimental Medicine Department, Pharmacology Section, Campania Regional Center of Pharmacovigilance and Pharmacoepidemiology, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy

Sabine M. J. M. Straus

Affiliations Department of Medical Informatics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, Medicines Evaluation Board, Utrecht, the Netherlands

Katia M. C. Verhamme

Affiliation Department of Medical Informatics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

Jan Bonhoeffer

Affiliations Brighton Collaboration Foundation, Basel, Switzerland, University Children’s Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland

Ian C. K. Wong

Affiliation Centre for Safe Medication Practice and Research, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

Miriam C. J. M. Sturkenboom

Affiliations Department of Medical Informatics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

GRiP network

Membership of the GRiP network is provided in the Acknowledgments.

Competing Interests

I have read the journal’s policy and the authors of this manuscript have the following competing interests: Katia Verhamme has been involved as project coordinator in analyses conducted by various pharmaceutical companies, and received unconditional research grants from Pfizer, Yamanouchi, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Novartis, and GSK, none of which are related to the subject of this study. Miriam Sturkenboom and Ian Wong both lead research groups that conduct research for pharmaceutical companies through non-conditional grants, none of which is related to this research. All other authors have no conflicts of interest to declare that are directly relevant to the content of this study. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SdB SS JB IW MS. Analyzed the data: SdB CF SS KV. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SdB CF SS KV JB IW MS. Wrote the paper: SdB CF SS KV JB IW MS.