About the Authors

Gregory J. Pec

gpec@ualberta.ca

Affiliation Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Justine Karst

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Alexandra N. Sywenky

Affiliation Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Paul W. Cigan

Affiliation Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Nadir Erbilgin

Affiliation Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Suzanne W. Simard

Affiliation Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

James F. Cahill Jr.

Affiliation Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: GJP JK NE SWS JFC. Performed the experiments: GJP AS PWC. Analyzed the data: GJP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JFC. Wrote the paper: GJP JK NE SWS JFC.