About the Authors

Tanya Graham

Affiliation King's College London, Department of Postgraduate Research, Florence Nightingale School of Nursing & Midwifery, 3.35 James Clerk Maxwell Building, 57 Waterloo Road, London SE1 8WA, United Kingdom

Phil Alderson

Affiliation Centre for Clinical Practice, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), Level 1A, City Tower, Piccadilly Plaza, Manchester M1 4BT, United Kingdom

Tim Stokes


Affiliation School of Health and Population Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have read the journal's policy and have the following competing interests: PA and TG declare no financial relationships with any organisations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous three years. TS declares that the University of Birmingham, his employer, has received one honorarium from the pharmaceutical industry from lecturing on aspects of NICE’s work programmes. This does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TS PA TG. Performed the experiments: TG. Analyzed the data: TG TS PA. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TG TS PA. Wrote the paper: TS TG PA.