About the Authors

Groesbeck P. Parham

professorparham@gmail.com

Affiliations Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France

Mulindi H. Mwanahamuntu

Affiliations Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

Sharon Kapambwe

Affiliations Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

Richard Muwonge

Affiliation International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France

Allen C. Bateman

Affiliations Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Meridith Blevins

Affiliation Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America

Carla J. Chibwesha

Affiliations Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Krista S. Pfaendler

Affiliations Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America

Victor Mudenda

Affiliation University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

Aaron L. Shibemba

Affiliation University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

Samson Chisele

Affiliation University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

Gracilia Mkumba

Affiliation University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

Bellington Vwalika

Affiliation University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

Michael L. Hicks

Affiliation Michigan Cancer Institute, Pontiac, Michigan, United States of America

Sten H. Vermund

Affiliation Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America

Benjamin H. Chi

Affiliations Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Jeffrey S. A. Stringer

Affiliations Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan

Affiliation International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France

Vikrant V. Sahasrabuddhe

Affiliations Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no other competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: GPP MHM SK RS VVS. Performed the experiments: GPP MHM SK RM ACB MB CC KSP VM ALS SC GM BV MLH SHV BHC JSS RS VVS. Analyzed the data: GPP RM ACB MB RS VVS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: GPP RM ACB MB KSP MLH SHV BHC JSS RS VVS. Wrote the paper: GPP MHM SK RM ACB MB CC KSP VM ALS SC GM BV MLH SHV BHC JSS RS VVS.