About the Authors

Andrew D. A. C. Smith

Affiliations Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit, the University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Kate Tilling

Affiliations Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit, the University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Debbie A. Lawlor

Contributed equally to this work with: Debbie A. Lawlor, Scott M. Nelson

d.a.lawlor@bristol.ac.uk (DAL); scott.nelson@glasgow.ac.uk (SMN)

Affiliations Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit, the University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Scott M. Nelson

Contributed equally to this work with: Debbie A. Lawlor, Scott M. Nelson

d.a.lawlor@bristol.ac.uk (DAL); scott.nelson@glasgow.ac.uk (SMN)

Affiliation School of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DAL SMN. Performed the experiments: ADACS. Analyzed the data: ADACS KT. Wrote the paper: ADACS KT DAL SMN.