About the Authors

Eric D. Vugrin

edvugri@sandia.gov

Affiliation Resilience and Regulatory Effects, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America

Brian L. Rostron

Affiliation Center for Tobacco Products, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Springs, Maryland, United States of America

Stephen J. Verzi

Affiliation Systems Research, Analysis and Applications, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America

Nancy S. Brodsky

Affiliation Resilience and Regulatory Effects, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America

Theresa J. Brown

Affiliation Policy and Decision Analytics, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America

Conrad J. Choiniere

Affiliation Center for Tobacco Products, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Springs, Maryland, United States of America

Blair N. Coleman

Affiliation Center for Tobacco Products, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Springs, Maryland, United States of America

Antonio Paredes

Affiliation Center for Tobacco Products, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Springs, Maryland, United States of America

Benjamin J. Apelberg

Affiliation Center for Tobacco Products, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Springs, Maryland, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have the following interests: This work was funded by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration through a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy/Sandia National Laboratories (funding document 224109011). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. For the work described in this manuscript, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration was the funding sponsor. Lockheed Martin did not provide any funding and has had no influence on the work or the development of the manuscript. There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: BLR CJC BNC BJA. Performed the experiments: EDV SJV. Analyzed the data: EDV BLR SJV NSB TJB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EDV BLR SJV. Wrote the paper: EDV BLR SJV NSB TJB CJC BNC AP BJA.