About the Authors

Lance Turtle

Affiliations Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Ronald Ross Building, Liverpool, L69 7BE, United Kingdom, NIHR Health Protection Research Unit, University of Liverpool, Ronald Ross Building, Liverpool, L69 7BE, United Kingdom

Fiona McGill

Affiliation Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Ronald Ross Building, Liverpool, L69 7BE, United Kingdom

Judy Bettridge

Affiliation Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Ronald Ross Building, Liverpool, L69 7BE, United Kingdom

Claire Matata

Affiliation Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Ronald Ross Building, Liverpool, L69 7BE, United Kingdom

Rob Christley

Affiliations Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Ronald Ross Building, Liverpool, L69 7BE, United Kingdom, NIHR Health Protection Research Unit, University of Liverpool, Ronald Ross Building, Liverpool, L69 7BE, United Kingdom

Tom Solomon

tsolomon@liv.ac.uk

Affiliations Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Ronald Ross Building, Liverpool, L69 7BE, United Kingdom, NIHR Health Protection Research Unit, University of Liverpool, Ronald Ross Building, Liverpool, L69 7BE, United Kingdom, Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Lower Lane, Liverpool, L9 7LJ, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

All authors have completed the Unified Competing Interest form at www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf (available on request from the corresponding author) and declare that (1) TS and RC have support from the National Institute for Health Research for the submitted work; (2) TS, LT, FM, CM and JB have no relationships that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous 3 years; (3) their spouses, partners, or children have no financial relationships that may be relevant to the submitted work; and (4) all authors have no non-financial interests that may be relevant to the submitted work.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TS LT FM RC. Performed the experiments: LT FM CM. Analyzed the data: JB LT FM RC. Wrote the paper: LT TS FM RC JB.