About the Authors

Lene Vase

lenevase@psy.au.dk

Affiliations Department of Psychology and Behavioural Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark, Danish Pain Research Center, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

Sara Baram

Affiliations Section of Clinical Oral Physiology, Department of Dentistry, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark, Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Oral Pathology, Department of Dentistry, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

Nobuari Takakura

Affiliation Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Tokyo Ariake University of Medical and Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan

Miho Takayama

Affiliation Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Tokyo Ariake University of Medical and Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan

Hiroyoshi Yajima

Affiliation Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Tokyo Ariake University of Medical and Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan

Akiko Kawase

Affiliation Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Tokyo Ariake University of Medical and Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan

Lars Schuster

Affiliation The Acupuncture Academy, Copenhagen and Aarhus, Denmark

Ted J. Kaptchuk

Affiliation Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Søren Schou

Affiliation Section of Clinical Oral Physiology, Department of Dentistry, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

Troels Staehelin Jensen

Affiliation Danish Pain Research Center, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

Robert Zachariae

Affiliations Department of Psychology and Behavioural Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark, Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

Peter Svensson

Affiliation Section of Clinical Oral Physiology, Department of Dentistry, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

Competing Interests

Nobuari Takakura (NT) and the Educational Foundation of Hanada Gakuen possess a U.S. patent 6575992B1 (patent title: Safe needle, placebo needle, and needle set for double blind), a Canadian patent CA 2339223 (patent title: Safe needle, placebo needle, and needle set for double blind), a Korean patent 0478177 (patent title: Safe needle, placebo needle, and needle set for double blind), a Taiwan patent 150135 (patent title: Safe needle, placebo needle, and needle set for double blind), a Chinese patent ZL00800894.9 (patent title: Safe needle, placebo needle, and needle set for double blind), a Hong Kong patent HK1036928 (patent title: Safe needle, placebo needle, and needle set for double blind), and a Japanese patent 4061397 (patent title: Placebo needle, and needle set for double-blinding). The safe needle is a penetrating needle and the placebo needle is a non-penetrating needle as illustrated and described in this paper. The needle set is a pair of penetrating needles and non-penetrating needles for use in double-blind acupuncture studies. NT is a salaried employee of the Educational Foundation of Hanada Gakuen and has received research funding from the Educational Foundation of Hanada Gakuen. This does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: LV SB NT MT HY AK LS TJK SS TSJ RZ PS. Performed the experiments: LV SB LS SS PS. Analyzed the data: LV NT MT HY AK TJK TSJ RZ PS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SS NT. Wrote the paper: LV NT MT HY AK LS TJK SS TSJ RZ PS.