About the Authors

Chim W. Chan

chim.chan@ki.se

Affiliation Island Malaria Group, Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Naoko Sakihama

Current address: Laboratory of Biology, Osaka Institute of Technology, Ohmiya, Asahi-ku, Osaka, Japan

Affiliation Laboratory of Malariology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

Shin-Ichiro Tachibana

Current address: Department of Biology and Geosciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan

Affiliation Laboratory of Malariology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

Zulkarnain Md Idris

Affiliation Island Malaria Group, Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

J. Koji Lum

Affiliations Laboratory of Evolutionary Anthropology and Health, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, United States of America, Department of Anthropology, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, United States of America, Department of Biological Sciences, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, United States of America

Kazuyuki Tanabe

† Deceased.

Affiliation Laboratory of Malariology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

Akira Kaneko

Affiliations Island Malaria Group, Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JKL KT AK. Performed the experiments: NS SIT KT. Analyzed the data: CWC NS SIT ZMI JKL KT. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: NS SIT JKL KT AK. Wrote the paper: CWC NS SIT ZMI JKL AK.