About the Authors

Takaaki Hirotsu

Contributed equally to this work with: Takaaki Hirotsu, Hideto Sonoda

hirotsu.takaaki.056@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp (TH); sonoda-hideto@imari-arita-hp.or.jp (HS)

Affiliations Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, Department of Biology, Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, Division of Applied Medical Sensing, Research and Development Center for Taste and Odor Sensing, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

Hideto Sonoda

Contributed equally to this work with: Takaaki Hirotsu, Hideto Sonoda

hirotsu.takaaki.056@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp (TH); sonoda-hideto@imari-arita-hp.or.jp (HS)

Affiliations Division of Applied Medical Sensing, Research and Development Center for Taste and Odor Sensing, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, Department of General Surgery, Imari-Arita Kyoritsu Hospital, Saga, Japan, Department of Surgery and Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

Takayuki Uozumi

Affiliation Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

Yoshiaki Shinden

Affiliation Department of Surgery, Kyushu University Beppu Hospital, Oita, Japan

Koshi Mimori

Affiliation Department of Surgery, Kyushu University Beppu Hospital, Oita, Japan

Yoshihiko Maehara

Affiliation Department of Surgery and Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

Naoko Ueda

Affiliation Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

Masayuki Hamakawa

Affiliation Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TH HS. Performed the experiments: TH HS TU YS KM YM NU MH. Analyzed the data: TH HS TU MH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TH HS YS KM YM. Wrote the paper: TH HS. Supervised the questionnaire, Obtained urine and serum samples from control participants and patients: HS.