About the Authors

Martin H. Kroll

mfholick@bu.edu (MFH); Martin.H.Kroll@questdiagnostics.com (MHK)

Affiliation Quest Diagnostics, 3 Giralda Farms, Madison, NJ, United States of America

Caixia Bi

Affiliation Quest Diagnostics, 3 Giralda Farms, Madison, NJ, United States of America

Carl C. Garber

Affiliation Quest Diagnostics, 3 Giralda Farms, Madison, NJ, United States of America

Harvey W. Kaufman

Affiliation Quest Diagnostics, 3 Giralda Farms, Madison, NJ, United States of America

Dungang Liu

Affiliation Department of Biostatistics, Yale University School of Public Health, 300 George Street, New Haven, CT, United States of America

Anne Caston-Balderrama

Affiliation Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute, 33608 Ortega Highway, San Juan Capistrano, CA, United States of America

Ke Zhang

Affiliation Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute, 33608 Ortega Highway, San Juan Capistrano, CA, United States of America

Nigel Clarke

Affiliation Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute, 33608 Ortega Highway, San Juan Capistrano, CA, United States of America

Minge Xie

Affiliation Office of Statistical Consulting, Department of Statistics and Biostatistics, Rutgers University, 110 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ, United States of America

Richard E. Reitz

Affiliation Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute, 33608 Ortega Highway, San Juan Capistrano, CA, United States of America

Stephen C. Suffin

Affiliation Quest Diagnostics, 3 Giralda Farms, Madison, NJ, United States of America

Michael F. Holick

mfholick@bu.edu (MFH); Martin.H.Kroll@questdiagnostics.com (MHK)

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics at Boston University School of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 88 East Newton, Boston, MA, 02118, United States of America

Competing Interests

Michael F. Holick has read the journal’s policy and the authors of this manuscript have the following competing interests: this work was funded by Quest Diagnostics. Stephen Suffin, Caixia Bi, Martin Kroll, Carl Garber, and Harvey Kaufman were employed by and received stock/stock options from Quest Diagnostics. Martin Kroll’s prior employer was Boston University. Dungang Liu, Minge Xie, Anne Caston-Balderrama, Nigel Clarke, and Richard E. Reitz received a consulting fee or honorarium from Quest Diagnostics. Michael F. Holick was Academic Associate of Quest Diagnostics. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to PLoS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MHK HWK CCG NG RER MFH. Performed the experiments: MHK CB CCG HWK DL ACB KZ NC MX RER SCS MFH. Analyzed the data: MHK CB DL KZ MX RER ACB MFH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MHK CB CCG HWK DL ACB KZ NC MX RER SCS MFH. Wrote the paper: MHK CB CCG HWK DL ACB KZ NC MX RER SCS MFH.