About the Authors

Benjamin S. Halpern

halpern@bren.ucsb.edu

Affiliations National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, United Kingdom

Catherine Longo

Affiliation National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America

Julia S. Stewart Lowndes

Affiliation National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America

Benjamin D. Best

Affiliations National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Melanie Frazier

Affiliation National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America

Steven K. Katona

Affiliation Betty and Gordon Moore Center for Science and Oceans, Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America

Kristin M. Kleisner

Affiliation Sea Around Us Project, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Andrew A. Rosenberg

Affiliation Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Courtney Scarborough

Affiliation National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America

Elizabeth R. Selig

Affiliation Betty and Gordon Moore Center for Science and Oceans, Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: BSH CL SKK KMK AAR ERS. Performed the experiments: BSH CL JSL BDB MF ERS. Analyzed the data: BSH CL JSL BDB MF KMK CS ERS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: BDB MF. Wrote the paper: BSH CL JSL MF SKK KMK AAR CS ERS.