About the Authors

Kaori Yoshida

‡ These authors contributed equally to this work.

Affiliations Addictive Substance Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan, Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Tokyo Dental College, Tokyo, Japan

Daisuke Nishizawa

‡ These authors contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Addictive Substance Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan

Takashi Ichinomiya

Affiliation Department of Biomedical Informatics, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan

Tatsuya Ichinohe

Affiliation Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Tokyo Dental College, Tokyo, Japan

Masakazu Hayashida

Affiliation Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

Ken-ichi Fukuda

Affiliation Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Tokyo Dental College, Tokyo, Japan

Kazutaka Ikeda

ikeda-kz@igakuken.or.jp

Affiliation Addictive Substance Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan

Competing Interests

Kazutaka Ikeda, Ph.D., is a PLOS ONE Editorial Board member. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to PLOS ONE Editorial policies and criteria.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KY DN KI. Performed the experiments: KY DN. Analyzed the data: KY DN T. Ichinomiya. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: T. Ichinohe MH KF. Wrote the paper: KY DN KI.