About the Authors

Yen T. Duong

Affiliation International Laboratory Branch, Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Reshma Kassanjee

Affiliations The South African DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis (SACEMA), University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa, School of Computational and Applied Mathematics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Alex Welte

Affiliation The South African DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis (SACEMA), University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Meade Morgan

Affiliation Epidemiology and Strategic Information Branch, Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Anindya De

Affiliation Epidemiology and Strategic Information Branch, Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Trudy Dobbs

Affiliation International Laboratory Branch, Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Erin Rottinghaus

Affiliation International Laboratory Branch, Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

John Nkengasong

Affiliation International Laboratory Branch, Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Marcel E. Curlin

Affiliation Thailand Ministry of Public Health-US CDC Collaboration, Bangkok, Thailand

Chonticha Kittinunvorakoon

Affiliation Thailand Ministry of Public Health-US CDC Collaboration, Bangkok, Thailand

Boonyos Raengsakulrach

Affiliation Thailand Ministry of Public Health-US CDC Collaboration, Bangkok, Thailand

Michael Martin

Affiliation Thailand Ministry of Public Health-US CDC Collaboration, Bangkok, Thailand

Kachit Choopanya

Affiliation Thailand Ministry of Public Health-US CDC Collaboration, Bangkok, Thailand

Suphak Vanichseni

Affiliation Thailand Ministry of Public Health-US CDC Collaboration, Bangkok, Thailand

Yan Jiang

Affiliation National AIDS Reference Laboratory, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China

Maofeng Qiu

Affiliation National AIDS Reference Laboratory, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China

Haiying Yu

Affiliation National AIDS Reference Laboratory, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China

Yan Hao

Affiliation National AIDS Reference Laboratory, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China

Neha Shah

Affiliation California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, United States of America

Linh-Vi Le

Affiliation Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hanoi, Vietnam

Andrea A. Kim

Affiliation CDC-Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya

Tuan Anh Nguyen

Affiliation National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam

William Ampofo

Affiliation Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Accra, Ghana

Bharat S. Parekh

bparekh@cdc.gov

Affiliation International Laboratory Branch, Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Competing Interests

BSP is an inventor of LAg-Avidity EIA and receives royalties as part of U.S. government licensing agreement with commercial partners. Recombinant protein (rIDRm) and knowhow to develop the LAg-Avidity EIA and related incidence assays have been licensed to multiple commercial partners as per open licensing policy of the U.S. Government. These commercial partners currently include 1) Sedia BioSciences, Portland, OR, 2) Maxim Biotech, Rockville, MD, and 3) Beijing KingHawk Pharmaceuticals Inc., Beijing, China. This does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE Editorial policies and criteria or adherence of PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: BSP YD AAK NS YJ MQ. Performed the experiments: YD TD ER MQ HY YH. Analyzed the data: BSP YD RK AW M. Morgan AD YJ MQ NS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: BSP YD RK AW M. Morgan AD MEC CK BR M. Martin KC SV YJ MQ HY YH NS LL AAK TAN WA. Wrote the paper: BSP YD RK AW JN M. Morgan AD.