About the Authors

Jeffrey T. Bruckel

Affiliation Massachusetts General Hospital, Edward P. Lawrence Center for Quality and Safety, Boston, MA, United States of America

Hitinder S. Gurm

Affiliation University of Michigan Health System, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America

Milan Seth

Affiliation Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America

Richard L. Prager

Affiliation University of Michigan Health System,Department of Cardiac Surgery, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America, Michigan Society of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons Quality Collaborative, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America

Andrea Jensen

Affiliation Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America

Brahmajee K. Nallamothu

bnallamo@med.umich.edu

Affiliation University of Michigan Health System, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America, Ann Arbor VA Center for Clinical Management and Research, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JTB HSG RLP AJ BKN. Performed the experiments: JTB MS AJ. Analyzed the data: JTB AJ MS. Wrote the paper: JTB HSG MS RLP AJ BKN.